Free sex Shenyang

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The Internet also makes it easier for MSM to have casual partners. This study aims to evaluate the trend of Internet-based sex-seeking behavior of MSM and its impact on HIV prevalence, the distribution of HIV subtype strains, and transmitted drug resistance rates.

A serial cross-sectional study was conducted from to Of the 1, MSM, With the development of Internet and mobile technology, the ways of socializing and seeking homosexual partners have changed dramatically with MSM. The Internet makes it easier for MSM to seek casual homosexual partners. As a result, there are great concerns for the potential effect of Internet-based socializing on HIV infection and transmission [ 46 ].

The majority of published studies on IBM were completed via questionnaires done online or over the smart phone application [ 4 — 7 ]. One meta-analysis showed that the pooled prevalence of both gonorrhea and chlamydia was ificantly higher among IBM than NIBM [ 6 ], but the prevalence of HIV Free sex Shenyang not found ificantly different between above two groups by recent surveys [ 8101213 ]. The subtypes of HIV are quite diverse in the MSM population, with the subtypes correlating with geographic location, transmission routes, and even sexual characteristics [ 14 — 16 ].

HIV bioinformatics analysis has been used to elucidate the transmission origin, transmission routes, and evolutionary dynamics of HIV in MSM and other populations [ 17 ].

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This study was conducted in the city of Shenyang in China. Shenyang is the provincial capital of Liaoning Province and one of the largest cities in China, with a population of approximately 8. A six-year serial cross-sectional study was conducted in Shenyang, China, from February to December Fingerprinting was used as identification for participants.

Eligible entry criteria were 1 being biologically male, 2 at least 18 years old, 3 self-reported as having anal or oral sex with another male in Free sex Shenyang past 12 months, 4 self-reported as never testing positive for HIV, and 5 being able to provide written informed consent. Participants were interviewed by using a face-to-face, structured questionnaire. The following data was collected: marriage status, occupation, monthly salary, age of male sexual behavior debut, of male sexual partners, condom use with male sexual partners, preferred sexual roles, sexual orientation, and STI symptoms in the past 12 months pain during urination, sensation of burning in the genitals, or abnormal urethral discharge [ 18 ].

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Ways of seeking homosexual partners were collected from each subject individually; those subjects who self-reported mainly sought male sexual partners through Internet or GSN applications in past 12 months were defined as IBM, otherwise were defined as NIBM. Five ml of venous blood was drawn to test antibodies of HIV-1 and syphilis. Single sequence fragments of each amplification was combined and edited by the sequencher program version 4.

Subtyping analysis was performed by the neighbor-ing method in MEGA version 4. Questionnaires were entered using EpiData 3. Chi-square test was used to compare differences in categorical variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine independent factors correlated with HIV infection. Potential confounding factors, including age, monthly income, and education level, were all adjusted in the multivariable logistic models.

Trend analysis of IBM and HIV prevalence over time was performed by chi-square trend test linear-by-linear association. A six-digit was used to identify the participant and to link the questionnaire and laboratory test with the participant. Written informed consent was obtained from each participant.

The participants could refuse to answer any of the questions. All documents with identifying information were placed in a locked file cabinet, which Free sex Shenyang be accessed by anyone else except for the principal investigator and study staff. Among MSM who were approached to take part in the study, 10 refused to attend the study and 7 were excluded for had been tested HIV positive before attending the study. Among 1, eligible MSM, Compared with NIBM subjects, IBM subjects were younger, had more proportion of local residents, had a high school level education or above, and earned a higher income each.

IBM participants had more proportion of homosexual orientation, earlier age of male sexual behavior debut, used condoms more frequently, and more preferred receptive anal sexual roles each. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences were amplified and sequenced from drawn HIV positive specimens during toin which The total proportion of TDR 5. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study examining the relationship between Internet-based partner-seeking behavior and HIV infection risk.

Our findings indicate that using the Internet to seek partners and sex is associated with an increased HIV infection and transmission risk and is correlated with distinct virtual sexual network and HIV strains. However, four peer surveys have found that, compared to NIBM, IBM population was younger, received a higher level of education, and had higher income [ 49 — 11 ]. Our study confirmed the findings from the four peer surveys. Furthermore, our show that IBM Free sex Shenyang to be single and local residents, in study site Shenyang city.

There was also a lack of consensus in the literature about whether the Internet can increase the of homosexual partners and the rate of unprotected anal intercourse UAI. Grosskopf et al. It is worth mentioning that this serial cross-sectional survey found that IBM had a statistically ificant higher HIV prevalence than NIBM after adjusting for potential study confounders.

This study also was the first to show that there was a great increase in the Internet seeking behavior in Shenyang during the six-year survey, Free sex Shenyang which the proportion of IBM increased from The year of was a boundary time point.

Compared to studies on the relationship of Internet-based partner-seeking behavior and HIV infection risk in MSM, this study was able provide laboratory testing as well. More longitudinal studies are needed to further examine the relationship of Internet-based partner-seeking behavior of MSM and HIV infection risk. It showed that currently the Internet-based partner-seeking behavior have not substantial impact for their distribution of HIV subtypes and TDR. We found similar independent risk factors for HIV infection in both IBM and NIBM populations, which were syphilis infection, preferring both receptive and insertive anal intercourse with steady male partners, and occasionally or never using condoms with steady sexual partners.

Our findings indicate that public health officials should pay attention to relevant contextual factors that may promote HIV infection, including UAI with homosexual partners and concurrent STD infection. They are also more likely to be the victims of sexual violence [ 32 ]. Moreover, they might lack knowledge about the availability of free HIV testing sites [ 3133 ].

Our findings also show that IBM who occasionally or never use condoms with casual male sexual partners had ificantly higher HIV prevalence. Several strengths exist in this study. First, it is one of the few venue-based surveys about the relationship between Internet-based partner-seeking behavior of MSM and HIV infection. Second, this is the first serial cross-sectional study, which can provide stronger evidence about trends of MSM seeking homosexual partners through the Internet.

Some limitations to this study exist. This study used convenience sampling to recruit MSM subjects, so it cannot fully represent all of the characteristics of MSM in Shenyang. We used an interview questionnaire to collect information on some sexual behaviors, including the of sexual partners and whether they engaged in UAI, so recall bias and social desirability bias may exist.

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In this survey, we did not collect the detailed frequency of using the Internet to seek sexual partners among studied subjects, and there may be some connection between the frequency and HIV infection; further studies should be conducted for future researches. Blood samples were not available to conduct HIV molecular testing from toso HIV subtypes and drug resistance rates derived from this study may have been different with MSM participants during that time.

Despite the limitations, this study identifies the trends of Chinese MSM seeking sexual partners through the Internet and reports that Internet partner-seeking behavior is associated with ificantly increased HIV prevalence. Our have implications for behavioral interventions targeted at IBM. Internet has become an increasingly popular means for Chinese MSM to socialize and seek partners.

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The former is younger and single, with a higher educational level and a higher income. More longitudinal surveys, in particular prospective cohort surveys, are needed to further examine the relationship between Internet partner-seeking behavior, sexual behaviors, and HIV infection in MSM.

The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. They also thank those MSM subjects who participated in this study.

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They thank Dr. Alice Zhang from the University of Maryland for his assistance in manuscript editing. Jun-Jie Xu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors.

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Free sex Shenyang

Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Lei Zhang. Received 07 Sep Revised 16 Nov Accepted 01 Dec Published 25 Dec Materials and Methods 2. Study De This study was conducted in the city of Shenyang in China. Interview Process Participants were interviewed by using a face-to-face, structured questionnaire. Data Analysis Questionnaires were entered using EpiData 3. Ethical Issues A six-digit was used to identify the participant and to link the questionnaire and laboratory test with the participant. 3.

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Characteristics of IBM Participants Among MSM who were approached to take part in the study, 10 refused to attend the study and 7 were excluded for had been tested HIV positive before attending the study. NA, not applicable. Table 1. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of factors associated with using the Internet to seek male partners among Shenyang MSM.

Figure 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with HIV. View at: Google Scholar W. Tang, B. John, Y. Zhang et al. Lehmiller and M. Zou and S. Grosskopf, M.

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